Signs of the firmware
In this article, we will look at how to navigate the abbreviations that are most often found in the names of firmware.
The "1.8 T" entry indicates that the firmware is for a turbocharged 1.8-liter gasoline engine. On diesel engines, the letter d is indicated after the engine volume. Often, in the designation after the engine volume, in addition to the fuel type, the system type is indicated, for example, - CDI for Mercedes or JTD for FIAT. Further, for complete identification, numeric and letter codes are used that indicate the configuration of the actual control unit by the manufacturer of the unit (HARDWARE, ECU NUMBER), for example, Bosch "0261203551", the software used (SOFTWARE, EPROM NUMBER) - "227355966" and the number according to the classification of the car manufacturer (VAG) – "8d0907557". The last digit-letters in our example are the type of control unit.
You can find the necessary IDs on the sticker on your block. You can also read the firmware, open it with a hex editor, and find the firmware IDs in plain text.
Depending on the tasks, different files from different elements of the control unit can be used in the chip tuning process. Working with the "wrong" file is fraught with damage to the control unit, sometimes irrevocable. Therefore, to eliminate confusion, each element is assigned its own extension. For example, an external flash processor has the extension "ext" internal flash memory "int" or "mpc" (the content processor) for EEPROM use the extension "e2p".
Some loaders save a single shared file when they read the contents of flash memory, processor, and EEPROM. This file is assigned the extension "full" or "all". In the future, the necessary elements are extracted from the shared file, such as the flash content, edited, and collected again in the shared file for subsequent writing to the block. If the loader program does not save the shared file in an open format, but packs it in its own format, this is indicated in the extension – for example, "SGO" or "cmd".
To indicate the original ("stock", "standard") firmware, use the extensions "ori"," orig "or"std". Or add similar combinations to the firmware name, keeping the common extension for binary files "bin". Less often you can find firmware in other formats with the corresponding extensions: IntelHex – "hex", MotorolaHex – "s19", and others.
To indicate a modified, tuned (edited firmware), use the "mod" extension (modified) or add various abbreviations to the firmware name. Let's look at some of the most common:
- 120hp — used for 120 horsepower engines;
- 2001 — used for vehicles manufactured in 2001.
- ori (orig; stok; stock; original; std, flash,single) — stock (original) firmware without any modifications.
- E2 (E0; E3; E4; E5) — environmental standard governing the content of harmful substances in exhaust gases (E0/E2/E3/E4/E5).
- 2WD — 2-wheel drive;
- 4WD — 4-wheel drive;
- AT (automatic transmission; AKPP; АКПП) — automatic transmission.
- MT (manual transmission; MKPP; МКПП) — manual transmission.
- tun (mod; startpower; stage; L; fast; T; power) — firmware with modified data, tuned firmware;
- ME2x (Mod_E2; tun_E2; startpower_E2; L_E2; L2; TE2) — modified the firmware under the norms of Euro-2; (x — version of the modification on the principle of the alphabet (A,B,C,D,E...);
- ME4x (TE4, L_E4)— modified firmware with the factory emission standards; (x — version of the modification on the principle of the alphabet (A,B,C,D,E...);
- SE4 — original factory calibration.
- 92, 95, 98, 100 — for gasoline with an octane rating of 92, 95, 98, 100;
- no immo (immo off; NI) — the immobilizer is disabled.
- CVN (Calibration Verification Number) — this is a special checksum that is used to verify the authenticity of calibrations in the control unit. CVN compliance, as a rule, does not affect the performance of the ECU. If the CVN does not correspond to the original value, the engine and the control unit may be deprived of the manufacturer's warranty.
- no dpf (no fap; dpf off; fap off) — firmware with a remote particulate filter (DPF, FAP);
- no egr (egr off) — firmware that disables exhaust gas recirculation to the intake system;
- no LSU (no lambda) — a remote lambda in diesel or a second lambda (control of catalysts) in gasoline (Euro2 environmental standards);
- no swirl (manifold flap; VSS; VSA (FLAP) off) — removed swirl flaps in the intake manifold;
- no TVA (throttle) — remote throttle on diesel;
- no SAP (SAP off) — the catalyst purge pump is disabled;
- no dtc — removed some codes from the error mask (for example, no egr no dtc - when removing the exhaust gas recirculation-also removed error codes from the EGR mask);
- no maf (no hfm, no air) — the air flow meter is removed from the configuration (in diesel);
- no elab — diesel engine emergency shut-off valve removed;
- no evap — removed the catalyst purge system (in petrol cars);
- no EGP — exhaust gas pressure sensor removed;
- no EGT — exhaust gas temperature sensor removed;
- disc all — it is necessary to remove all connectors (disconnect all) of the device that is disabled programmatically (for example, when removing the particulate filter-remove the connectors from all sensors related to it - the differential pressure sensor and the gas temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet of the filter);
- no NWS — camshaft phase shifters are removed from the configuration (for example, petrol BMWs);
- launch — the launch-control system is enabled programmatically ("traction control" - a very simplified analog of tractioncontrol, - uses only the speed limit at zero and low speeds of movement - to reduce the slip at the start of " full throttle»);
- no limits — for fans of "annealing";
- popcorn — bullet holes in the exhaust system (the "popcorn" effect");
- no ADBLUE — the system for supplying special additives (liquids) to the particulate filter has been removed;
- no cks (no cs; no cheksum) — the firmware checksum was not recalculated after editing. Some boot loaders, when writing to the block of the edited firmware, can calculate the checksum only on the basis of the stock one, but if the checksum has already been recalculated by the editor – they recalculate incorrectly, and the machine does not start. To fix the problem, a stock checksum is left in the edited firmware. For example-some clones of the Chinese MPPS-12 loader do not work with the modified checksum when loading the modified MB EDC16C31 file. Other bootloaders, on the contrary, can write the firmware "as is", without recalculating anything. Accordingly, if you write the no cks firmware with their help , the machine will not start.
- GBO — equipment, thanks to which the car can run not only on standard liquid fuel (gasoline or diesel fuel), which is provided by the manufacturer, but also on various types of gas. The number after the abbreviation GBO means the generation number of the gas equipment.
- TL8 — 6-speed manual transmission, all-wheel drive (4WD).
- DP8 — 4-speed automatic transmission, all-wheel drive (4WD).
- JR5 — 5-speed manual transmission, 2-wheel drive (2WD).